Detection of Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) in Diabetics using Ankle Brachial Index (ABI)

Khatoon Akhtar Bano, Naheed Hashmat, Asia Batool, Shameem Ahmad Siddiqui



To evaluate the Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) in the detection of peripheral arterial disease (PAD)among diabetic patients.Setting: Diabetic clinic o f PMRC Research Centre, Fatima Jinnah Medical College, Lahore.

Study Design:

Cross sectional descriptive.

Subjects & Methods:

This pilot study included 95 diabetic patients with ages 40 years or above and durationof the disease was more than 5 years. Detailed history including treatment was documented. Duringexamination systolic blood pressure in the right and left arms (Brachial Pressure) was measured & documented.Systolic Blood Pressure in both ankles was measured using ultrasound Doppler probe (Huntleigh SuperDoppler - II). Left and right ABI were obtained by dividing brachial systolic pressure with ankle systolicpressure. A ratio of 0.9 or above was taken as normal.


The study included 95 patients (15 males and 80 females) with mean age 51.90 ± 9.49 years andmean duration of diabetes 13.23 ± 5.83 years. Smoking was observed in 53.30%, hypertension in 57.89%and 71.57% had dyslipidemia. ABI ratio was mildly abnormal in 52.68%, moderately abnormal in 7.38%while it was normal in 38.94% cases. Duration of thedisease was negatively correlated (r = - 0.650 & 0.937)with ABI & correlation was highly significant (p < 0.047 & 0.008). Blood sugar and lipid levels were notsignificantly correlated with ABI.


The results conclude the detection ofhigh percentage (60.08) of abnormal ABI in this groupof patients. Ankle brachial index, a non-invasive and simple technique, may be used to screen the detectionof PAD and diabetic foot.


Ankle Brachial Index, peripheral arterial disease, cardiovascular complications, diabetic foot.

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